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[:nl]Mitragyna speciosa (kratom, Ketum, kratum, korth, Thai: กระท่อม) is a tropical deciduous deciduous tree belonging to the Rubiaceae (Rubiaceae) Mitragyna speciosa originally grew in Southeast Asia in. Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia and Vietnam. In this region, the leaves are used for centuries for medicinal purposes. The leaves are psychoactive. Chewed the leaves to improve mood and to treat health problems. Mitragyna speciosa is native to Thailand, and even though it is plentiful in the nature of the land is forbidden since 1943 because the tax proceeds from opium distribution of the Thai government reduced.
Kratom reacts as a μ-opioid agonist such as morphine and is used in the treatment of chronic pain or as a recreational agent. kratom is not detected by standard drug-testing, but the metabolites can be detected at a more specialized research. the pharmacological effects of kratom in humans, including its efficacy and safety, are not enough known yet. most side effects of kratom are considered mild, although a few isolated examples of serious side effects such as psychosis, convulsions, hallucinations, and confusion [source?]. There is one case in which chronic use of M. speciosa was associated with constipation, as well as reports stating that the plant carries the potential for addiction and can cause withdrawal symptoms. There are studies reported deaths that have shown that individuals kratom have combined with other drugs or substances, but is kratom itself is not identified in each of these cases as a cause of death.
Mitragyna speciosa -Trees usually grow between 3 and 9 meters high and 4.5 meters wide, although some species may be up to 30 meters high. The trunk is straight and branches.
Depending on the climate or habitat is Mitragyna speciosa evergreen or deciduous. The opposite leaves are oval with between 2 to 4 centimeters long blade steal. The leaves have a dark green color, and can be long and wide 10 cm to 18 cm. The leaves of M. speciosa are ovate, ending in a point and are smaller at the end of the twig. The leaf base is round to heart-shaped.
The flowers are packed in a round inflorescence of 3 to 5 cm, and have a tendency to grow in groups at the end of the branches. The flowers are yellow and round. The calyx tube is short and bowl-shaped with rounded lobes. The crown tube was five mm long with three mm long lobes and between smooth and round.
From the M. speciosa leaves are more than 40 constituents isolated. These include alkaloids such as mitragynine (long time it was believed that this is the primary active ingredient), Mitra phil line and 7-hydroxymitragynine (currently regarded as the primary active ingredient in the plant), and mitragynine pseudoindoxyl. Other active chemicals in the M. speciosa-plant include raubasine (better known as Rauwolfia serpentina, reserpine), and yohimbe alkaloids such as corynantheidine.
Mitragyna speciosa contains at least one alkaloid (rhynchophylline), a calcium-antagonist which the NMDA reduces -induced conjunction. The amount of mitragynine in the leaves is strongly dependent on several factors, which vary growing place. When the trees in Southeast Asia mitragynineniveaus be cultured much higher than those in other localities (including greenhouses). Cultivating Kratombomen outside Southeast Asia provides very low or negligible mitragynineniveaus on.
An analysis on the basis of liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) of the marketed kratom mitragynine showed present at a level of 1-6%, and 7-hydroxymitragynine at a level of 0.01-0.4%. the chemical structure of the core of the take mitragynines tryptamine on, these are probably responsible for the molecules that are absorbed in the serotonin – and adrenergesystemen. According to some studies, it is considered to be the phenolic methyl ether in the mitragynine as to be stronger in the analgesic models.
The pharmacokinetic properties of M. speciosa on humans have not been studied well. Various aspects, such as the half-life, protein binding properties and other properties such as the elimination or metabolism is not known.
Use and Safety
Traditionally, kratom leaf in raw form chewed mainly by people in southern Thailand. In the Southeast Asian neighbors Thailand, where kratom grows naturally use kratom. Because the use of kratom is considered traditional, there are no prejudices associated with the use of kratom or discrimination against kratom users. For centuries kratom in southern Thailand a part of traditional culture, cultural expressions and in agriculture. In southern Thailand begin kratomkauwers around the age of 25 years, many will continue for the rest of their lives with the consuming kratom. A fresh leaf weighs about 2 grams. The average number of leaves which will be consumed per day is between 10 and 60 leaves, more than this is very common. In some areas, use more than 70% of the male population kratom daily.
Kratom is in traditional Thai medicine used as medicine for diarrhea, treatment for addiction to opiates and sometimes prolong sexual intercourse.
Kratom and derivatives are used as substitutes for opium and counteract withdrawal symptoms of opium. Data on frequency and prevalence of absence use because doctors are unfamiliar with it and did not see its use on regular drug tests. Kratom metabolites can be detected by specialized mass spectrometric test. The frequency of kratom appears to be increasing in individuals taking on its own initiative, without prescription drugs, opioids to treat chronic pain. These people usually continue to use Kratom. Until 2011 there was no official scientific study of the efficacy and safety of kratom in treatment for opiate addiction.
Kratom behaves as a μ-opioid agonist, similar to opiates such as morphine, although the effects are markedly different to that of opiates. Kratom seems to have no significant side effects and do not, in particular, to be the cause of hypoventilation what is typically for other opiates. Compulsive use was reported among drug users who inject opioids, and those who use opioids to treat pain without medical advice. side effects of chronic kratom use include loss of appetite, weight loss, constipation and darkening of skin on the face. Withdrawal symptoms include irritability, a runny nose and diarrhea.
Withdrawal is generally short-lived and mild and can be treated effectively with dihydrocodeine and lofexidine. There are known three deaths, wherein kratom was found in the body. In all these cases, there were found several drugs in the body. Only was speculated in one of the cases using the drug would be the possible cause of death. Multiple deaths in Sweden arose from the use of a product which was believed initially that it consisted exclusively of kratom, namely ‘krypton kratom. Later it was found to consist of the O-desmethyl tramadol, the active metabolite of the drug tramadol. In 1975 there appeared an isolated report serious side effects such as psychosis, convulsions, hallucinations and confusion among five individuals who had used kratom daily for 10-35 years.
Taxonomy and etymology
Mitragyna speciosa was first formally described by the Dutch colonial plant expert Pieter Korthals. The genus was named Mitragyna because Korthals in investigating recognized the shape of a bishop’s miter. It is related to the genera Corynanthe and Uncaria and shares a similar biochemistry.
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